Single bar helmet

Early nasal helmets were universally conical in shape.

The skull could be raised from a single sheet of iron or be of composite, segmented (spangenhelm) construction.

Single bar helmet

The single bar was usually a sliding affair held in place by a prominent screw.Covenanting horse rarely attained the level of armour of their English counterparts and by the third civil war armour would be greatly dispensed with due the smaller stature of the horses available to the Scots. A light helmet designed to give good protection and affording excellent visibility.The classic three bar nasal face piece is usually indicative of English manufacture.By the outbreak of the Civil Wars new innovations in the accuracy and reliability of firearms, new tactics and the increased length of campaigns in the field had led to a decline in the use of heavy armour.However the civil war did witness the last use of heavy armour with the cavalry cuirassier.

Single bar helmet

Bevor extending up to cover the cheeks and form a "Y" shaped hole. Single neck lames at the front and back with rolled lower edges. 1640 Harquebusier armour The cavalry termed "Harquebusier" would ideally be equipped with a back and breast plate, a helmet of lobster pot fashion or a burgonet, a steel bridle arm gauntlet and a buff coat made from buffalo hide, which was usually think enough to turn a sword blow.Arms would have been a combination of pistols, a short barreled flintlock or wheellock carbine and sword or in Covenanting service a proportion of lances.The peak is hinged at the sides and the skull was generally formed from 2 halves, joined with a roll to form a slight comb.The neck guard, which gave the helmet its name due to its similarity to a lobsters tail could be formed from articulated lames or from a solid plate with false raised lames. The imported European examples of the lobster pot helmets were possibly more common and sometimes termed "Zischagge".1620 Cuirassiers "close" burgonet A closed burgonet.

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Skull formed from 2 pieces, the right side overlapping the left.

Notable 17th C construction with seam forming a crease, not a raised comb, the 2 halves are riveted together. A light open faced helmet popular in the 16th C as an alternative to the close helmet for light cavalry and still found in use in the 17th C.

This helmet has a small movable peak of round form. It was usually furnished with a peak over the brow, a combed skull and hinged earpieces which allowed the helmet to be put on and taken off.

Though still used, the conical type of helmet declined in popularity during the latter half of the 12th century and round-topped nasal helmets came into fashion.

King Richard I of England is depicted wearing a round-skulled nasal helmet on his first Great Seal (1189).

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